KILOPARSEC JET PHYSICAL PARAMETERS DETERMINED BY THEIR RADIO AND X-RAY EMISSION

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/rpra19.02.126

M. S. Butuzova

Abstract


In this review, the observational data of kiloparsec jets of extragalactic sources are discussed. It is shown that both comparative morphology and spectra of increased brightness regions (knots) at the radio and X-ray wavebands allow to judge about the emission processes and to define the prime physical parameters of the knots. For instance, the best investigated 3C 273 quasar jet. Its intensity distribution indicates a moderately relativistic speed. At its knots concentration of relativistic electrons, magnetic field magnitude and absence of energy equipartition between them are defined. A number of conclusions about particle and emission energy spectra have been made. The competition of X-ray emission mechanisms enabled to determine the jet angle (about 30°) to the line of sight.

Key words: radio- and X-ray emission, kiloparsec jet, Compton back-scattering

Manuscript submitted 12.02.2014

Radio phys. radio astron. 2014, 19(2): 126-141

REFERENCES

1. DAGKESAMANSKII, R. D., 1987. Physics of extragalactic sources of radio emission. Moskow: Mir Publ. (in Russian).

2. GINSBURG, V. L., 1981. Theoretical physics and astrophysics. Additional chapters. Moskow: Nauka Publ. (in Russian).

3. HARRIS, D. E. XJET: X-Ray Emission From Extragalactic Radio Jets. [online] Available from: http://hea-www.cfa.harvard. edu/XJET

4. GESTRIN, S. G. and KONTOROVICH , V. M., 1997. Wind Instability in Astrophysics (in Applications to Jets, Comet Tails, Spiral Structure of Galaxies). Radio Phys. Radio Astron. vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 419–438(in Russian).

5. CARILLI, C. L. and BARTHEL, P. D., 1996. Cygnus A. Astron. Astrophys. Rev. vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s001590050001

6. BAHCALL, J. N., KIRHAKOS, S., SCHNEIDER, D. P., DAVIS, R. J., MUXLOW, T. W. B., GARRINGTON, S. T., CONWAY, R. G., AND UNWIN, S. C., 1995. Hubble Space Telescope and MERLIN observations of the jet in 3C 273. Astrophys. J. Lett. vol. 452, no. 2, pp. L91–L93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/309717

7. STAWARZ, L., 2004. On the jet activity in 3C 273. Astrophys. J. vol. 613, no. 1, pp. 119–128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/423022

8. Bridle, A. H., Hough, D. H., Lonsdale, C. J., Burns, J. O., and Laing, R. A., 1994.Deep VLA Imaging of Twelve Extended 3CR Quasars. Astron. J. vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 766–820.
https://doi.org/10.1086/117112

9. HARRIS, D. E. and KRAWCZYNSKI, H., 2006. X-ray emission from extragalactic jets. Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. vol. 44, no. 1. pp. 463–506. DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.astro.44.051905.092446

10. MARSHALL, H. L., HARRIS, D. E., GRIMES, J. P., DRAKE, J. J., FRUSCIONE, A., JUDA, M., KRAFT, R. P., MATHUR, S., MURRAY, S. S., OGLE, P. M., PEASE, D. O., SCHWARTZ, D. A., SIEMIGINOWSKA, A. L., VRTILEK, S. D., and WARGELIN, B. J., 2001.Structure of X-ray emission from the jet of 3C 273. Astrophys. J. vol. 549, no. 2, pp. L167–L171. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/319161

11. SAMBRUNA, R. M., URRY, C. M., TAVECCHIO, F., MARASCHI, L., SCARPA, R., CHARTAS, G., and MUXLOW, T., 2001. Chandra observations of the X-ray jet of 3C 273. Astrophys. J. vol. 549, no. 2, pp. L161–L165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/319157

12. CHEUNG, C. C., STAWARZ, L., AND SIEMIGINOWSKA, A., 2006. Confronting X-Ray Emission Models with the Highest Redshift Kiloparsec-Scale Jets: The z=3.89 Jet in Quasar 1745+624. Astrophys. J. vol. 650, no. 2, pp. 679–692. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/506908

13. SIEMIGINOWSKA, A., BECHTOLD, J., ALDCROFT, T. L., ELVIS, M., HARRIS, D. E., and DOBRZYCKI, A., 2002.Chandra Discovery of a 300 Kiloparsec X-Ray Jet in the Gigahertz-Peaked Spectrum Quasar PKS 1127-145. Astrophys. J. vol. 570, no. 2, pp. 543–556. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/339629

14. SAMBRUNA, R. M., GAMBILL, J. K., MARASCHI, L., TAVECCHIO, F., CERUTTI, R., CHEUNG, C. C., URRY, C. M., and CHARTAS, G. A survey of extended radio jets with Chandra and the Hubble Space Telescope. Astrophys. J. vol. 608, no. 2, pp. 698–720. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1086/383124

15. JORSTAD, S. G. and MARSCHER, A. P., 2004. The Highly Relativistic Kiloparsed-Scale Jet of the Gamma-Ray Quasar 0827+243. Astrophys. J. vol. 614, no. 2, pp. 615–625. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1086/423800

16. KATAOKA, J. AND STAWARZ, L., 2005. X-Ray Emission Properties of Large-Scale Jets, Hot Spots, and Lobes in Active Galactic Nuclei. Astrophys. J. vol. 622, no. 2, pp. 797–810. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1086/428083

17. RÖSER, H.-J., MEISENHEIMER, K., NEUMANN, M., CONWAY, R. G., and PERLEY , R. A., 2000. The Jet of 3C 273 Observed with ROSAT HRI. Astron. Astrophys. vol. 360, no. 1, pp. 99–106.

18. SCHWARTZ, D. A., MARSHALL, H. L., LOVELL, J. E. J., PINER, B. G., TINGAY, S. J., BIRKINSHAW, M., CHARTAS, G., ELVIS, M., FEIGELSON, E. D., GHOSH, K. K., HARRIS, D. E., HIRABAYASHI, H., HOOPER, E. J., JAUNCEY, D. L., LANZETTA, K. M., MATHUR, S., PRESTON, R. A., TUCKER, W. H., VIRANI, S., WILKES, B., and WORRALL , D. M., 2000.Chandra Discovery of a 100 Kiloparsec X-ray Jet in PKS 0637 -752. Astrophys. J. vol. 540, no. 2, pp. 69–72. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/312875

19. JESTER, S., MEISENHEIMER, K., MARTEL, A. R., PERLMAN, E. S., and SPARKS, W. B., 2007.Hubble Space Telescope Far-Ultraviolet Imaging of the Jet in 3C 273: a Common Emission Component from Optical to X-Rays. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. vol. 380, no. 2, pp. 828–834. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12120.x

20. AHARONIAN, F. A., 2002. Proton-Synchrotron Radiation of Large Scale Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. vol. 332, no. 1, pp. 215–230. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05292.x

21. PERLMAN, E. S., HARRIS, D. E., BIRETTA, J. A., SPARKS, W. B., AND MACCHETTO, F. D., 2003. Month-Timescale Optical Variability in the M 87 Jet. Astrophys. J. vol. 599, no. 2, pp. L65–L68. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/381191

22. HARDCASTLE, M. J., BIRKINSHAW, M., CAMERON, R. A., HARRIS, D. E., LOONEY, L. W., AND WORRALL, D. M., 2002. Magnetic Field Strengths in the Hot Spots and Lobes of Three Powerful Fanaroff-Riley Type II Radio Sources. Astrophys. J. vol. 581, no. 2, pp. 948–973. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/344409

23. HARDCASTLE, M. J., BIRKINSHAW, M., AND WORRALL, D. M., 2001. A Chandra Detection of the Radio Hotspot of 3C123. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. vol. 323, no. 2, pp. L17–L22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04341.x

24. HARRIS, D. E., NULSEN, P. E. J., PONMAN, T. J., BAUTZ, M., CAMERON, R. A., DAVID, L. P., DONNELLY, R. H., FORMAN, W. R., GREGO, L., HARDCASTLE, M. J., HENRY, J. P., JONES, C., LEAHY, J. P., MARKEVITCH, M., MARTEL, A. R., MCNAMARA, B. R., MAZZOTTA, P., TUCKER, W., VIRANI, S. N., and VRTILEK , J., 2000. Chandra X-Ray Detection of the Radio Hot Spots of 3C 295. Astrophys. J. vol. 530, no. 2, pp. L81–L84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/312503

25. TAVECCHIO, F., MARASCHI, L., SAMBRUNA, R. M., AND URRY, C. M., 2000. The X-Ray Jet of PKS 0637-752: Inverse Compton Radiation from the Cosmic Microwave Background? Astrophys. J. vol. 544, no. 1, pp. L23–L26. DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1086/317292

26. CELOTTI, A., GHISELLINI, G., AND CHIABERGE, M., 2001. Large-scale Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei: Multiwavelength Mapping. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. vol. 321, no. 1, pp. L1–L5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04160.x

27. GEORGANOPOULOS, M. and KAZANAS, D., 2004. Witnessing the Gradual Slowdown of Powerful Extragalactic Jets: The X-Ray-Optical-Radio Connection. Astrophys. J. vol. 604, no. 2, pp. L81–L84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/386339

28. SCHWARTZ, D. A., 2002. X-Ray Jets as Cosmic Beacons. Astrophys. J. vol. 569, no. 1,pp. L23–L26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/340482

29. CHEUNG, C. C., STAWARZ, L., SIEMIGINOWSKA, A., HARRIS, D. E., SCHWARTZ, D. A., WARDLE, J. F. C., GOBEILLE, D., and LEE, N. P., 2008. The highest redshift relativistic jets. ASP Conf. Series. vol. 386, pp. 462–466.

30. WILSON, A. S., YOUNG, A. J., and SHOPBELL , P. L., 2001. Chandra X-Ray Observations of Pictor A: High-Energy Cosmic Rays in a Radio Galaxy. Astrophys. J. vol. 547, no. 2, pp. 740–753. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/318412

31. JESTER, S., HARRIS, D. E., MARSHALL, H. L., and MEISENHEIMER , K., 2006. New Chandra Observations of the Jet in 3C 273. I. Softer X-Ray than Radio Spectra and the X-Ray Emission Mechanism. Astrophys. J. vol. 648, no. 2,pp. 900–909. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/505962

32. BIRETTA, J. A., ZHOU, F., and OWEN, F. N.  1995. Detection of Proper Motions in the M87 Jet. Astrophys. J. vol. 447, no. 2,pp. 582–596. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/175901

33. BIRETTA, J. A., SPARKS, W. B., and MACCHETTO, F., 1999. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Superluminal Motion in the M87 Jet. Astrophys. J. vol. 520, no. 2, pp. 621–626. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/307499

34. GESTRIN, S. G., KONTOROVICH, V. M., and KACHANOV, A. E., 1987. Diffusion model of extended radio components and jets with a moving source of accelerated particles. Kinematika I fizika nebesnyh tel. vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 57–66 (in Russian).

35. BANNIKOVA, E. Yu. and KONTOROVICH, V. M., 2003. On the possibility of determining the speed of jets of radio galaxies and quasars from studies of the fine structure of their nodes at high angular resolution. Space science and technology. vol. 9, pp. 304–311(in Russian).

36. LAING, R.A. and BRIDLE, A. H., 2002. Relativistic Models and the Jet Velocity Field in the Radio Galaxy 3C 31. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. vol. 336, no. 1,pp. 328–352. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05756.x

37. WARDLE, J. F. C. and AARON, S. E., 1997. How Fast are the Large-Scale Jets in Quasar? Constraints on Both Doppler Beaming and Intrinsic Asymmetries. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. vol. 286, no. 2, pp. 425–435. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/286.2.425

38. CONWAY, R. G. and DAVIS, R. J., 1994. Synchrotron Radiation from the Jet of 3C 273. 3: The Speed and Direction of the Jet. Astron. Astrophys. vol. 284, no. 3, pp. 724–730.

39. GHISELLINI, G., TAVECCHIO F., and CHIABERGE, M., 2005. Structured jets in TeV BL Lac objects and radiogalaxies. Implications for the observed properties. Astron. Astrophys. vol. 432, no. 2, pp. 401–410. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20041404

40. S STAWARZ, L. and OSTROWSKI, M., 2002. Radiation from the Relativistic Jet: A Role of the Shear Boundary Layer. Astrophys. J. vol. 578, no. 2, pp. 763–774. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/342649

41. BANNIKOVA, E. Yu. and KONTOROVICH, V. M., 2003. Determination of the parameters of cosmic jets by their fine structure in the radio and X-ray ranges. Space science and technology. vol. 9, no. 5/6, pp. 153–157 (in Russian).

42. MIKHAILOVA, M. S., BANNIKOVA, E. Yu., and KONTOROVICH, V. M., 2010. Determination of the slope of kiloparsec jets of the quasar 3C 273 on the competition of the mechanisms of the X-ray radiation of its nodes. Astron. J. vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 531–538 (in Russian).

43. BONDI. M., BRUNETTI, G., COMASTRI, A., and SETTI, G., 2004. Anisotropic inverse Compton emission in the Radio Galaxy 3C 265. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. vol. 354, no. 3, pp. L43–L47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.08398.x

44. BUTUZOVA.M. S., 2011. Determination of the Parameters of Kiloparsec Jets at Large Redshifts by their Radio and X-ray Emission. Radio Phys. Radio Astron. vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 377–385 (in Russian).

45. MYKHAILOVA, M. S., 2012. X-ray and radioemission of kiloparsec jets at large redshifts. Advances in Astronomy and Space Physics (conference proceedings). vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 49–52.

46. UCHIYAMA, YA. URRY, C. M., CHEUNG, C. C., JESTER, S., VAN DUYNE, J., COPPI, P., SAMBRUNA, R. M., TAKAHASHI, T., TAVECCHIO, F, and MARASCHI, L., 2006. Shedding New Light on the 3C 273 Jet with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Astrophys J. vol. 648, no. 2, pp. 910–921. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/505964

47. J JESTER, S., RÖSER, H.-J., MEISENHEIMER, K., and PERLEY, R., 2005. The Radio-Ultraviolet Spectral Energy Distribution of the Jet in 3C 273. Astron. Astrophys. vol. 431, no. 2,pp. 477–502. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20047021

48. CHEUNG, C. C.,  2004.Radio Identification of the X-Ray Jet in the z=4.3 Quasar GB 1508+5714. Astrophys. J. vol. 600, no. 1, pp. L23–L26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/381366

49. BURBIDGE, G. R., 1956.On Synchrotron Radiation from Messier 87. Astrophys. J. vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 416–429. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/146237

50. MYKHAILOVA, M. S., BANNIKOVA, E. Yu. and KONTOROVICH, V. M., 2008. The break in the energy spectrum of relativistic electrons in the jet of the quasar 3C 273, determined from the intensity of jet radiation in the radio, optical and X-ray ranges. Questions of Atomic Science and Technology. no. 4, pp. 128–132 (in Russian).

51. PAHOL'CHIK, A., 1973. Radioastrophysics. Moskow: Mir Publ. (in Russian).

52. MYKHAILOVA, M. S. and KONTOROVICH, V. M., 2010. Inverse Compton scattering in the near site of the jet of the quasar 3C 273. Questions of Atomic Science and Technology. no. 4, pp. 149–154 (in Russian).

53. MYKHAILOVA, M. S. and KONTOROVICH, V. M., 2011. Influence of low-frequency quasar 3C 273 radio spectrum on X-ray emission of its kiloparsec jet. In: Advances in Astronomy and Space Physics. Proc. of the 17th Young Scientists' Conference on Astronomy and Space Physics. Kyiv, Ukraine.  pp. 39–42.

54. NAGIRNER, D. I., 2007. Radiation mechanisms in astrophysics: Textbook. SPb.: SPBGU. (in Russian).

55. TÜRLER, M., PALTANI, S., COURVOISIER, T. J.-L., ALLER, M. F., ALLER, H. D., BLECHA, A., BOUCHET, P., LAINELA, M., MCHARDY, I. M., ROBSON, E. I., STEVENS, J. A., TERÄSRANTA, H, TORNIKOSKI, M., ULRICH, M.-H., WALTMAN, E. B., WAMSTEKER, W., and WRIGHT, M. C. H., 1999.30 years of multi-wavelength observations of 3C 273. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 89–101. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1051/aas:1999125

56. BUTUZOVA,M. S., 2012. Inverse compton and thomson scattering of the quasar 3С 273 emission by electrons of the nearest knot of its kiloparsec jet. Radio Phys. Radio Astron. vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 15–22 (in Russian).

57. CARILLI, C. L., PERLEY, R. A., DREHER, J. W., and LEAHY, J. P., 1991.Multifrequency Radio Observations of Cygnus A: Spectral Aging in Powerful Radio Galaxies. Astrophys. J. vol. 383, no. 1, pp. 554–573. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1086/170813

58. BASSETT, L. C., BRANDT, W. N., SCHNEIDER, D. P., VIGNALI, C., CHARTAS, G., and GARMIRE, G. P., 2004.Chandra Observations of Radio-Loud Quasars at z>4: X-Rays from the Radio Beacons of the Early Universe. Astron. J. vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 523–533. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1086/422019

59. HARRIS, D. E., MOSSMAN, A. E., and WALKER, R. C., 2004. The X-Ray Jet of 3C 120: Evidence for a Nonstandart Synchrotron Spectrum. Astrophys. J. vol. 615, no. 1, pp. 161–172. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1086/424442

60. MARSHALL, H. L., SCHWARTZ, D. A, LOVELL, J. E. J., MURPHY, D. W., WORRALL, D. M., BIRKINSHAW, M., GELBORD, J. M., PERLMAN, E. S., and JAUNCEY, D. L., 2005. A Chandra Survey of Quasar Jets: First Results. Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. vol. 156, no. 1, pp. 13–33. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1086/425578

61. MARSHALL, H. L., GELBORD, J. M., SCHWARTZ, D. A., MURPHY, D. W., LOVELL, J. E. J., WORRALL, D. M., BIRKINSHAW, M., PERLMAN, E. S., GODFREY, L., and JAUNCEY, D. L., 2011.An X-ray imaging survey of quasar jets: testing the inverse Compton model. Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 15–33. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/193/1/15

62. JESTER, S., 2003. What ignites optical jets? New Astron. Rev. vol. 47, no. 6-7, pp. 427–430. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1387-6473(03)00064-2


Keywords


radio- and X-ray emission; kiloparsec jet; Compton back-scattering

Full Text:

PDF


Creative Commons License

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) .