THE EFFECTS OF SOLAR ECLIPSE OF MARCH 20, 2015 OVER IONOSPHERE OF EUROPE: IONOSONDE OBSERVATIONS

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/rpra20.04.311

L. F. Chernogor, V. V. Barabash

Abstract


PACS number: 95.10.Gi

The ionograms from eleven European ionosondes (Kharkiv, Moscow, Pruhonice, San Vito, et al.) have been analyzed. These ionograms were obtained during the eclipse of March 20, 2015 and the reference days. This eclipse took place against the background of the recovery phase of a very strong magnetic storm which was started on March 17, 2015. The solar eclipse effects are largely masked by the ionospheric storm effects. During the eclipse, the critical frequency foF2 had decreased by 1-2 MHz (15- 25 %), whereas decrease in electron concentration made 23-51 %. Increase in the F2-layer altitude made 10-70 km (3-20 %).

Key words: solar eclipse, ionosondes, critical frequency, virtual altitude variations, aperiodic disturbances, quasiperiodic disturbances

Manuscript submitted 26.10.2015

Radio phys. radio astron. 2015, 20(4): 311-331

REFERENCES

1. CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2013. Physical effects of solar eclipses in atmosphere and geospace: Monograph. Kharkiv: V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University Publ. (in Russian).

2. ECCLES, W. H., 1912. Effect of the eclipse on wireless telegraphic signals. Electrician. vol. 69, pp. 109–117.

3. MIMNO, H. R. and WANG, P. H., 1933. Continuous Kennelley–Heaviside layer records of a solar eclipse (with suggestions of a corpuscular effect on Appleton layer). Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. vol. 21, pp. 529–545.

4. VASILIEV, K. N., VELESHIN, A. S. and KOSENKOV, A. R., 1961. Ionospheric effects of the solar eclipse of February 15, 1961, according to the Moscow observations. Geomagnetizm i aeronomiya. vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 277–278 (in Russian).

5. DANILKIN, N. P., KOCHENOVA, N. A. and SVECHNIKOV, A. M., 1961. State of the ionosphere over Rostov-on-Don during the solar eclipse of February 15, 1961. Geomagnetizm i aeronomiya. vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 612–615 (in Russian).

6. SHAPIRO, B. S. and SHASHUNKINA, V. M., 1961. Movement in the F region of the ionosphere over Tbilisi during the eclipse of February 15, 1961. Geomagnetizm i aeronomiya. vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 760–765 (in Russian).

7. SHASHUNKINA, V. M. and TURBIN, R. I., 1961. Preliminary observations of ionospheric effects of solar eclipse of February 15, 1961. Geomagnetizm i aeronomiya. vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 835–838 (in Russian).

8. SUKHANOVA, R. D., 1961. Ionospheric effects of the solar eclipse of February 15, 1961, on observations to the Salekhard. Geomagnetizm i aeronomiya. vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 1066–1067 (in Russian).

9. GRISHKEVICH, L. V. and VASIN, V. A., 1961. On the effects of the ionosphere observed during a solar eclipse of December 02, 1956, and December 02, 1961, inGorky. Geomagnetizm i aeronomiya. vol. 1, no. 6. pp. 949–954 (in Russian).

10. KLOBUCHAR, J. A. and WHITNEY, H. E., 1965. Ionospheric electron content measurements during a solar Eclipse. J. Geophys. Res. vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 1254–1257. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/JZ070i005p01254

11. HUNTER, A. N., HOLMAN, B. K., FIELDGATE, D. G. and KELLEHER, R., 1974. Faraday rotation studies in Africa during the solar eclipse of June 30, 1973. Nature. vol. 250, is. 5463, pp. 205–206. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/250205a0

12. COHEN, E. A., 1984. The study of the effect of solar eclipses on the ionosphere based on satellite beacon observations. Radio Sci. vol. 19, is. 3, pp. 769–777. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/RS019i003p00769

13. AFRAIMOVICH, E. L., PALAMARTCHOUK, K. S., PEREVALOVA, N. P., CHEMUKHOV, V. V., LUKHNEV, A. V. and ZALUTSKY, V. T., 1998. Ionospheric effects of the solar eclipse of March 9, 1997, as deduced from GPS data. Geophys. Res. Lett. vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 465–468. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/98GL00186

14. AFRAIMOVICH, E. L., VOEYKOV, S. V., PEREVALOVA, N. P., VODYANNIKOV, V. V., GORDIENKO, G. I., LITVINOV, Yu. G. and YAKOVETS, A. F., 2007. Ionospheric effects of the solar eclipse of March 29, 2006, over Kazakhstan. Geomagnetizm i aeronomiya. vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 461–469 (in Russian).

15. EVANS, J. V., 1965. An F region eclipse. J. Geophys. Res. vol. 70, is 1, pp. 131–142. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/JZ070i001p00131

16. SALAH, J. E., OLIVER, W. L., FOSTER, J. C., HOLT, J. M., EMERY B. A., and ROBLE R. G., 1986. Observations of the May 30, 1984, annular solar eclipse at Millstone Hill. J. Geophys. Res. vol. 91, is. A2, pp. 1651–1660. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/JA091iA02p01651

17. AKIMOV, L. A., GRIGORENKO, E. I., TARAN, V. I., TYRNOV, O. F. and CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2002. Integrated radio physical and optical studies of dynamic processes in the atmosphere and geospace caused by the solar eclipse of August 11, 1999. Zarubezhnaya radioelektronika. Uspekhi sovremennoi radioelektroniki. no. 2, pp. 25–63 (in Russian).

18. AKIMOV, L. A., GRIGORENKO, E. I., TARAN, V. I. and CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2005. Features atmosphericionospheric effects of the solar eclipse of May 31, 2003: The results of the optical and radio physical observations in Kharkov. Uspekhi sovremennoi radioelektroniki. no. 3, pp. 55–70 (in Russian).

19. AKIMOV, L. A., BOGOVSKII, V. K., GRIGORENKO, E. I., TARAN, V. I. and CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2005. Atmospheric–ionospheric effects of the solar eclipse of May 31, 2003, in Kharkov. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 494–518.

20. BURMAKA, V. P., LYSENKO, V. N., LYASHENKO, M. V. and CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2007. Atmospheric and ionospheric effects of the partial solar eclipse of October 3, 2005, in Kharkiv. 1. The results of observation. Kosmіchna nauka i tekhnologіya. vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 74–86 (in Russian).

21. GRIGORENKO, E. I., LYASHENKO, M. V. and CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2008. Effects of solar eclipse of March 29, 2006, inthe ionosphere and atmosphere. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 337–351.

22. DOMNIN, I. F., EMELYANOV, L. Ya. and CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2012. The dynamics of ionosphere plasma over Kharkiv during the solar eclipse of January 4, 2011. Radio Phys. Radio Astron. vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 132–145 (in Russian).

23. DOMNIN, I. F., YEMEL'YANOV, L. Ya., KOTOV, D. V., LYASHENKO, M. V. and CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2013. Solar Eclipse of August 1, 2008, above Kharkiv: 1. Results of Incoherent Scatter Observations. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 113–123.

24. BURMAKA, V. P. and CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2013. Solar Eclipse of August 1, 2008, above Kharkov: 2. Observation Results of Wave Disturbances in the Ionosphere. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 479–491.

25. LYASHENKO, M. V. and CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2013. Solar eclipse of August 1, 2008, over Kharkiv: 3. Calculation Results and discussion. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 367–376.

26. DOMNIN, I. F., EMELYANOV, L. Y., LYASHENKO, M. V. and CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2014. Partial solar eclipse of January 4, 2011 above Kharkiv: Observation and simulations results. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 583–592.

27. BERTIN, F., HUGHES, K. A. and KERSLEY, L. Atmospheric waves induced by the solar eclipse of 30 June 1973. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. vol. 39, is. 4, pp. 457–461. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9169(77)90153-2

28. SEN GURTA, A., GOEL, G. K. and MATHUR, B. S., 1980. Effect of the 16 February 1980 solar eclipse on VLF propagation. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. vol. 42, is. 11/12, pp. 907–909. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9169(80)90107-5

29. CHENG, K., HUANG, Y.-N. and CHEN, S.-W., 1992. Ionospheric effects of the solar eclipse of September 23, 1987, around the equatorial anomaly crest region. J. Geophys. Res. vol. 97, is. A1, pp. 103–111. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/91JA02409

30. HUANG, C. R., LIU, C. H., YEH, K. C., LIN, K. H., TSAI, W. H., YEH, H. C. and LIU, J. Y., 1999. Astudy of tomographically reconstructed ionospheric images during a solar eclipse. J. Geophys. Res. vol. 104, no. A1, pp. 79–94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/98JA02531

31. BORISOV, B. B., YEGOROV, D. A., YEGOROV, N. E., KOLESNIK, A. G., KOLESNIK, S. A., MELCHINOV, V. P., NAGORSKIY, P. M., PARFENOV, S. S., RESHETNIKOV, D. D., SMIRNOV, V. F., STEPANOV, A. E., TARASHCHUK, Y. E., TELPUHOVSKIY, E. D., TSYBIKOV, B. B. and SHINKEVICH, B. M., 2000. Acomprehensive experimental study of the reaction of the ionosphere on solar eclipse March 9, 1997. Geomagnetism i aeronomiya. vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 94–103 (in Russian).

32. URYADOV, V. P., LEONOV, A. M. and PONYATOV, A. A., 2000. On variations of the characteristics of the HF signal on a line oblique sounding during the solar eclipse of August 11, 1999. Izvestiya vuzov. Radiofizika. vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 682–686 (in Russian).

33. GOKOV, A. M. and CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2000. Processes in lower ionosphere during August 11, 1999 Solar Eclipse. Radio Phys. Radio Astron. vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 348–360 (in Russian).

34. FARGES, T., JODOGNE, J. C., BAMFORD, R., ROUX, Y. Le., GAUTHIER, F., VILA, P. M., ALTADILL, D., SOLE, J. G. and MIRO, G., 2001. Disturbances of the western European ionosphere during the total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999 measured by a wide ionosonde and radar network. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 915–924. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6826(00)00195-4

35. CHENG, K., HUANG, Y.-N. and CHEN S.-W. Ionospheric effects of the solar eclipse of September 23, 1987, around the equatorial anomaly crest region. J. Geophys. Res. vol. 97, is. A1, pp. 103–111, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/91JA02409

36. TOMÁS, A. T., LÜHR, H., FÖRSTER, M., RENTZ, S. and ROTHER, M., 2007. Observations of the low-latitude solar eclipse on 8 April 2005 by CHAMP. J. Geophys. Res. vol. 112, is. A6, id. A06303. DOI: 10.1029/ 2006JA012168

37. FOUNDA, D., MELAS, D., LYKOUDIS, S., LISARIDIS, I., GERASOPOULOS, E., KOUVARAKIS, G., PETRAKIS, M. and ZEREFOS, C., 2007. The effect of the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 on meteorological variables in Greece. Atmos. Chem. Phys. vol. 7, is. 21, pp. 5543–5553. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-5543-2007

38. LE, H., LIU, L., YUE, X. and WAN, W., 2008. The ionospheric responses to the 11 August 1999 solar eclipse: observations and modeling. Ann. Geophys. vol. 26, is. 1, pp. 107–116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-26-107-2008

39. JAKOWSKI, N., STANKOV, S. M., WILKEN, V., BORRIES, C., ALTADILL, D., CHUM, J., BURESOVA, D., BOSKA, J., SAULI, P., HRUSKA, F. and CANDER, Lj. R., 2008. Ionospheric behavior over Europe during the solar eclipse of 3 October 2005. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 836–853. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2007.02.016

40. LE, H., LIU, L., YUE, X., WAN, W. and NING, B., 2009. Latitudinal dependence of the ionospheric response to solar eclipse. J. Geophys. Res. vol. 114, is. A7, id. A07308. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JA014072

41. KASCHEEV, S. B., ZALIZOVSKI, A. V., KOLOSKOV, A. V., GALUSHKO, V. G., PIKULIK, I. I., YAMPOLSKI, Y. M., KURKIN, V. I., LITOVKIN, G. I. and ORLOV, A. I., 2009. Frequency variations of HF signals at long-range radio paths during a solar eclipse. Radio Phys. Radio Astron. vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 353–366 (in Russian).

42. ADENIYI, J. O., RADICELLA, S. M., ADIMULA, I. A., WILLOUGHBY, A. A., OLADIPO, O. A. and OLAWEPO, O., 2007. Signature of the 29 March 2006 eclipse on the ionosphere over an equatorial station. J. Geophys. Res. vol. 112, is. A6, id. A06314. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JA012197

43. CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2010. Wave response of the ionosphere to the partial polar eclipse of August 1, 2008. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 346–361.

44. AKIMOV, A. L. and CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2010. Effects of the solar eclipse of August 1, 2008 on the Earth's lower atmosphere. Kinematics and Physics of Celestial Bodies. vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 135–145.

45. CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2010. Variations in the amplitude and phase of VLF radio waves in the ionosphere during the August 1, 2008, solar eclipse. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 100–110.

46. CHEN, G., ZHAO, Z., YANG, G., ZHOU, C., YAO, M., LI, T., HUANG, S. and LI, N., 2010. Enhancement and HF Doppler observations of sporadic-E during the solar eclipse of 22 July 2009. J. Geophys. Res. vol. 115, is. A9, id. A09325. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JA015530

47. CHERNOGOR, L. F. and BARABASH, V. V., 2011. The response of the middle ionosphere to the solar eclipse of January 4, 2011 over Kharkiv: Some results of vertical sounding. Kosmichna nauka i tekhnologiya. vol 17, no. 4, pp. 41–52 (in Russian).

48. GARMASH, K. P., LEUS, S. G. and CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2011. Radiophysical effects of the January 4, 2011 solar eclipse as observed in the parameters of obliquely propagating HF signals. Radio Phys. Radio Astron. vol. 2, is. 4, pp. 325–337. DOI: 
https://doi.org/10.1615/RadioPhysicsRadioAstronomy.v2.i4.50

49. CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2011. Dynamic processes in the near-ground atmosphere during the solar eclipse of August 1, 2008. Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics. vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 77–86.

50. CHERNOGOR, L. F., GRIGORENKO, YE. I. and LYASHENKO, M. V., 2011. Effects in geospace during partial solar eclipses over Kharkiv. Int. J. Remote Sens. vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 3219–3229. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2010.541509

51. CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2012. Effects of solar eclipses in the ionosphere: Doppler sounding results: 1. Experimental data. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 768–778.

52. CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2012. Effects of solar eclipses in the ionosphere: Doppler sounding results: 2. Spectral analysis. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 779–792.

53. CHEN, G., ZHAO, Z., NING, B., DENG, Z., YANG, G., ZHOU, C., YAO, M., LI, S. and LI, N., 2011. Latitudinal dependence of the ionospheric response to solar eclipse of 15 January 2010. J. Geophys. Res. vol. 116, is. A6, id. A06301. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JA016305

54. CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2013. Physical processes in the middle ionosphere accompanying the solar eclipse of January 4, 2011, inKharkov. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 19–31.

55. BELIKOVICH, V. V., VYAKHIREV, V. D., KALININA, Ye. Ye., TERESHCHENKO V. D., CHERNYAEV, S. M. and TERESHCHENKO, V. A., 2007. Response of the ionosphere on the partial solar eclipse March 29, 2006 observed in Nizhny Novgorod and Murmansk. Geomagnetizm i aeronomiya. vol. 48, no. 1. pp. 103–108 (in Russian).

56. KOVALEV, A. A., KOLESNIK, A. G. and KOLESNIK, S. A., 2009. Ionospheric effects of the solar eclipse in the middle latitudes. Geomagnetizm i aeronomiya. vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 500–506 (in Russian).

57. CHERNOGOR, L. F., 2008. Advanced methods of spectral analysis of quasiperiodic wave-like processes in the ionosphere: specific features and experimental results. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 652–673.

58. SCHUNK, R. W. and NAGY, A., 2000. Ionospheres: physics, plasma physics, and chemistry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

59. BRYUNELLI, B. E. and NAMGALADZE, A. A., 1987. Physics of the ionosphere. Moscow: Nauka Publ. (in Russian).


Keywords


solar eclipse; ionosondes; critical frequency; virtual altitude variations; aperiodic disturbances; quasiperiodic disturbances

Full Text:

PDF


Creative Commons License

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) .