FUNCTIONAL DAMAGE OF RADIO ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/rpra26.04.358

L. F. Chernogor

Abstract


Purpose: The most important problem of any state is protection of the control and management systems used for the country, national armed forces, high-risk facilities (nuclear power plants, large chemical plants, airports, etc.). Here, the fact that the means of attack can be deployed on ballistic and cruise missiles, aircraft, and drones should be accounted for. The flight altitude of these vehicles varies from ≈300 km to ≈ 10 m. Any attack vehicle is equipped with complex avionics consisting of circuit elements sensitive to electromagnetic fields. Since the 1980s, a new scientific and engineering direction has been developing, being termed as a “functional damage to avionics”. It is based on the creation of powerful means of electromagnetic radiation possessing the energetic capabilities of incapacitating avionics at significant distances (from ~ 100 m to ~ 1000 km). The purpose of this work is to analyze the possible functional damage to avionics with account for the tendencies in avionics technologies.

Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is made on the capability of inflicting functional damage to avionics accounting for the modern trends in developing the powerful means of electromagnetic energy generation in the microwave and shorter wavelength ranges, miniaturization and integration of avionics circuit elements. The regression is constructed for the critical energy time dependence. It has been determined that for decades the critical energy required to damage the circuit elements shows a tendency to decrease. This is due to the further miniaturization and integration of microcircuits according to the Moore’s law, which is still valid for now. For a number of circuit elements, the critical energy is found to be in the range of 10-11–10-10 J. At the same time, a reverse tendency arises to protect avionics from being functionally damaged. In this case, the critical energy makes 10-7–10-6 J and greater. From the derived version of the basic equation of functional damage to avionics, the maximum distance at which the damage is possible with the energetics of the existing radio systems is estimated. For the ground-based facilities, this distance can attain hundreds of kilometers. For mobile vehicles, it can reach 10–100 km. Combining target detection, identification and avionics damage capabilities in one radio system has been validated and advised. The transition from the first mode of operation to the second one occurs at shorter distances with an increase of 2–3 orders of magnitude in the pulse energy.

Findings: The regression equation has been obtained for the time dependence of the critical energy required for inflicting functional damage to avionics. Its constant decrease has been confirmed. Such a behavior is closely related to the Moore’s law, which characterizes the degree of miniaturization and integration of avionics circuit elements. It has been predicted that for a number of instruments the critical energy can be smaller than 10-11–10-10 J. A version of the basic equation of functional damage to avionics has been obtained. The maximum distance for a modern radio system to damage the avionics has been shown to attain many hundreds of kilometers. For the radio systems installed on mobile vehicles, this distance makes 10–100 km. Target detection, tracking and identification, as well as avionics damage capabilities, have been proved to be rationally combined in one radio system. To cause damage at a corresponding range, the pulse energy needs to be increased by a factor of 102–103.

Conclusions: There are all science and technology prerequisites for developing effective radio systems inflicting functional damage to avionics and for the state defense and protection, armed forces, and high-risk facility controlling systems.

Key words: functional damage; avionics; critical energy; Moore’s law; functional damage equation; radiolocation equation; detection and destruction range

Manuscript submitted 07.07.2021

Radio phys. radio astron. 2021, 26(4): 358-369

REFERENCES

1. BARSUKOV, V. S., 2003. Electromagnetic terrorism: protectionand counteraction. Spetsialnaya tekhnika. vol. 6,pp. 25–36. (in Russian).

2. BELOUS, V., 2005. The threat of using EMP weapons formilitary and terrorist purposes. Yadernyi control. vol. 11,is. 1(75), pp. 133–140. (in Russian).

3. PANOV, V. V. and SARKISYAN, A. P., 1993. Some aspectsof the problem of creating microwave devices for functionaldamage. Zarubezhnaya radioelektronika vol. 10–12,pp. 3–10. (in Russian).

4. FLORIG, H. K., 1988. The future battlefi eld: a blast of gigawatts?[microwave-based weapons]. IEEE Spectr. vol. 25,is. 3, pp. 50–54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/6.4523

5. FLORIG H. K., 1989. High-power microwave coupling andeffects on electronics. Annales de Physique, Colloque.vol. 14, no. 2, Supplement au № 6.

6. PROTASEVICH, E. T., 2004. Electromagnetic weapon.Tomsk, Russia: TPU Publ. (in Russian).

7. PALYI, A. I. and KUPRIYANOV, A. I., 2006. Essays onthe history of electronic warfare. Moscow, Russia: Vuzovskayakniga Publ. (in Russian).

8. KOPP, C., 1996. The Electromagnetic Bomb – a Weapon ofElectrical Mass Destruction [online]. Melbourne, Australia:Monash University Australia. [viewed 5 July 2021]. Availablefrom: https://www.airuniversity.af.edu/Portals/10/ASPJ/journals/Chronicles/apjemp.pdf

9. DOBYKIN, V. D., KUPRIYANOV, A. I., PONOMAREV,V. G. and SHUSTOV, L. N., 2007. Electronic warfare.Forceful defeat of electronic systems. Moscow, Russia:Vuzovskaya kniga Publ. (in Russian).

10. MAKARENKO, S. I., 2017. Information confrontationand electronic warfare in network-centric wars of the XXIcentury. Monograph. Saint Petersburg, Russia: Naukoemkietekhnologii Publ. (in Russian).

11. MIKHAILOV, R. L., 2018. Electronic warfare in the USArmed Forces: a military theoretical work. Saint Petersburg,Russia: Naukoemkie tekhnologii Publ. (in Russian).

12. ANIL, K. M., 2018. Directed Energy Weapons. In: Handbookof Defence Electronics and Optronics: Fundamentals,Technologies and Systems. pp. 1013–1105. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119184737.ch12

13. LAZAROV, L., 2019. Perspectives and Trends for theDevelopment of Electronic Warfare Systems. In: IEEE 2019International Conference on Creative Business for Smartand Sustainable Growth (CREBUS) Proceedings. pp. 1–3.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/CREBUS.2019.8840074

14. KOU, C., TANG, X., SHAO, K. and LIU, J., 2019. Highpower microwave interference effect of radar system. In:2019 IEEE 4th Advanced Information Technology, Electronicand Automation Control Conference (IAEAC) Proceedings.pp. 422–427. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/IAEAC47372.2019.8997669

15. KOCHEROV, A. N., SOLDATOV, V. P. and POLYAKOV,A. O., 2020. High-level design principles of electronicwarfare meansintegrated systems. Radiotekhnika.vol. 84, no. 7(13), pp. 45–52. (in Russian). DOI: 10.18127/j00338486-202007(13)-0

16. LENSHIN, A. V., 2021. Onboard electronic warfare systemsfor aircraft and helicopters: a textbook. Voronezh, Russia:MESC MAF “MAA” Publ. (in Russian).

17. PERUNOV, YU. M., FOMICHEV, K. I. and YUDIN, L. M.,2003. Electronic suppression of information channels ofweapon control systems. Moscow, Russia: RadiotekhnikaPubl. (in Russian).

18. ABRAMS, M., 2003. Dawn of the E-Bomb. IEEE Spectr.vol. 40, is. 11, pp. 24–30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MSPEC.2003.1242953

19. MERKULOV, V. I., DOBYKIN, V. D. and DROGALIN,V. V., 2006. Functional destroying of radio electronicsystems. Phasotron. is. 3–4. (in Russian).

20. KRAVCHENKO, V. I., 2008. Electromagnetic weapon.Kharkiv: NTU “KhPI” Publ. (in Russian).

21. KRAVCHENKO, V. I., 2009. Weapons based on unconventionalphysical principles. Electromagnetic weapon.Kharkiv, Ukraine: NTMT Publ. (in Russian).

22. ORLYANSKY, V. I. and DULNEV, P. A., 2017. Energyimpact is an important component of the enemy’s complexdestruction. Voennaya mysl’. is. 8, pp. 83–93. (in Russian).

23. HAMAMAH, F., AHMAD, W. F. H. W., GOMES, C.,ISA, M. M. and HOMAM, M. J., 2017. High powermicrowave devices: Development since 1880. In: 2017 IEEEAsia Pacifi c Microwave Conference (APMC) Proceedings.pp. 825–828. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/APMC.2017.8251576

24. SYDORENKO, R. G., HRIDIN, V. I., MEGELBEY, G. V.and REZNICHENKO, A. I., 2018. Basic directions of creationof systems of power radio electronic fi ght for defeat ofdifferent types radio electronic facilities. Scientifi c Works ofKharkiv National Air Force University. is. 1(55), pp. 91–96.(in Ukrainian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.30748/zhups.2018.55.12

25. SAKHAROV, K. Y., SUKHOV, A. V., UGOLEV, V. L.and GUREVICH, Y. M., 2018. Study of UWB ElectromagneticPulse Impact on Commercial Unmanned AerialVehicle. In: 2018 International Symposium on ElectromagneticCompatibility (EMC EUROPE) Proceedings.pp. 40–43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/EMCEurope.2018.8484992

26. PERUNOV, Y. M., DMITRIEV, V. G. and KUPRIYANOV,A. I., 2019. Analysis of methods and technicalsolutions of systems of functional destruction of REM.Izvestiya Instituta inzhenernoy phiziki. no. 3(53), pp. 38–42.(in Russian).

27. DMITRIEV, V. G., 2020. Functional destroying of radioelectronicequipment is one of the directions of ensuring militarysecurity. In: Actual problems of protection and security.Plenary reports of the XXIII All-Russian scientifi c-practicalconference RARAN. Saint Petersburg, Russia: Russian Academyof Rocket and Artillery Sciences Publ., pp. 150–157.(in Russian).

28. MAKARENKO, S. I., 2020. Counter unmanned aerialvehicles. Part 4. Functional destroying with microwaveand laser weapons. Syst. Control Commun. Security. is. 3,pp. 122–157. (in Russian). DOI: 10.24411/2410-9916-2020-10304

29. BELOUSOV, A. O. and GAZIZOV, T. R., 2021. Approachesto the methodology creation for ensuring electromagneticcompatibility of technique of functional destruction byelectromagnetic radiation with other radioelectronic techniquesas part of a complex for countering unmanned aerialvehicles. In: XI International Scientifi c and Technical Conferenceon Robotic and Intelligent Aircraft Systems ImprovingChallenges (RIASIC’2020) Poceedings. Moscow, Russia:Editus Publ., pp. 309–313. (in Russian).

30. AFONIN, I. E., MAKARENKO, S. I. and PETROV, S. V.,2021. Descriptive model of the electronic warfare subsystemas part aerospace attack means used to suppression elementsof an aerospace defense system. Syst. Control Commun.Security. is. 2, pp. 76–95. (in Russian). DOI: 10.24412/2410-9916-2021-2-76-95

31. ANTINONE, R. J., 1994. A Review of the Phenomenologyof High Power Microwave Effects on Electronic Components.In: International Symposium on Electromagnetic Environmentsand Consequence Proceedings. Bordeaux, France,Jan 17–21, 1994. pp. 344–350.

32. ANTIPIN, V. V., GODOVITSYN, V. A., GROMOV, D. V.,KOZHEVNIKOV, A. S. and RAVAEV, A. A., 1995. Impactof high-power pulsed microwave interferences on semiconductordevices and integrated circuits. Zarubezhnaya radioelektronika.is. 1, pp. 37–53. (in Russian).

33. BERDYSHEV, A. V., IVOYLOV, V. F., ISAYKIN, A. V.,KOZIRATSKIY, YU. L., SHCHERENKOV, V. V. andYARYGIN, A. P., 2000. Experimental studies of the effect ofmicrowave pulses on electronic devices containing microcircuits.Radiotekhnika. no. 6, pp. 85–88. (in Russian).

34. DOBYKIN, V. D., 2000. Analysis of the Thermal DegradationMechanism of Semiconductor Structures under IntenseMicrowave Radiation. Radiotekhnika i Electronika.vol. 45, is. 11, pp. 1389–1392. (in Russian).

35. VDOVIN, V. A., KULAGIN, V. V. and CHEREPENIN,V. A., 2003. Noises and malfunctions under non-thermalaction of a short electromagnetic pulse on radioelectronicdevices. Elektromagnitnye volny i elektronnye sistemy.no. 1, pp. 64–73. (in Russian).

36. VDOVIN, V. A., GULYAEV, Y. V, CHANTURIYA, V.and CHEREPENIN, V. A., 2005. Nonthermal action ofhigh-powered electromagnetic pulses on gold-bearing rock.J. Commun. Technol. Electron. vol. 50, is. 9, pp. 1044–1047.

37. DOBYKIN, V. D., 2008. Development of the theory ofthermal damage to semiconductor structures by powerfulmicrowave radiation. J. Commun. Technol. Electron. vol. 53,is. 1, pp. 100–103. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064226908010129

38. KICHOULIYA, R. and THOMAS, M. J., 2016. Interactionof high power electromagnetic pulses with power cables andelectronic systems. In: 2016 IEEE International Symposiumon Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Proceedings.pp. 159–163. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ISEMC.2016.7571636

39. GADETSKI, N. P., KRAVTSOV, K. A. and MAGDA, I. I.,1999. Personal computer functional disorders under effectof ultra-short duration electromagnetic pulses. In: 1999 9thInternational Crimean Microwave Conference “Microwaveand Telecommunication Technology” Proceedings (IEEECat. No.99EX363). 1999, pp. 326–328, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/CRMICO.1999.815254

40. GRETSKIKH, D. V., TSYKALOVSKIY, N. M. andGLADCHENKO, E. I., 2016. Application and developmentperspectives of wireless power transmission by microwavebeam. Radiotekhnika. vol. 184, pp. 100–118. (in Russian).

41. DIDENKO, A. N., 2003. Microwave energetics: theory andpractice. Moscow, Russia: Nauka Publ. (in Russian).

42. MESYATS, G. A., 1974. Generation of powerful nanosecondpulses. Moscow, Russia: Sov. Radio Publ. (inRussian).

43. KULAGIN, I. S., MILOSLAVSKIY, P. YU., NOVOZHILOVAYU. V., SMORGONSKIY A. V. and SHMELEV,M. YU., 1986. Relativistic HF electronics. Zarubezhnayaradioelektronika. no. 12, pp. 3–34. (in Russian).

44. BENFORD, J., SZE, H., WOO, W., SMITH, R. R. and HARTENECK,B., 1989. Phase Locking of RelativisticMagnetrons. Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 62, is. 8, pp. 969–971. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.62.969

45. BUGAEV, S. P., KANAVETS, V. I., KOSHELEV, V. I.and CHEREPENIN, V. A., 1991. Relativistic multiwave UHFgenerators. Novosibirsk, Russia: Nauka Publ. (in Russian).

46. GINZBURG, N. S., NOVOZHILOVA, YU. V. andSERGEEV, A. S., 1996. Generation of short electromagneticpulses by an electron bunch in a backward-wavetubeslow-wave system. Tech. Phys. Lett. vol. 22, is. 5,pp. 359–361.

47. KOROVIN, S. D., MESYATS, G. A., ROSTOV, V. V.,UL’MASKULOV, M. R., SHARYPOV, K. A., SHPAK, V. G.,SHUNAILOV, S. A. and YALANDIN, M. I., 2002. Highefficiency subnanosecond microwave pulse generation in arelativistic backward wave tube. Tech. Phys. Lett. vol. 28,is. 1, pp. 76–79. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/1.1448650

48. KALINUSHKIN, V. P., RUKHADZE, A. A., KUZELEV,M V. and MINAEV, I. M., 1997. Powerful plasmamicroelectronics and its applications perspectives.Prikladnaya fi zika. is. 1, pp. 3–22. (in Russian).

49. BROMBORSKY, A., AGEE, F., BOLLEN, M., CAMERON,J., CLARK, C., DAVIS, H., DESTLER, W.,GRAYBILL, S., HUTTLIN G., JUDY, D., KEHS, R.,KRIBEL, R., LIBELO, L., PASOUR, J., PEREIRA, N.,ROGERS, J., RUBUSH, M., RUTH, B., SCHLESIGER,C., SHERWOOD, E., SMUTEK, L., STILL, G.,THODE, L. and WEIDENHEIMER, D., 1988. On ThePath To A Terawatt: High Power Microwave ExperimentsAt Aurora’. In: SPIE Microwave and Particle Sourcesand Propagation Proceedings. vol. 873, pp. 51–61. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1117/12.965080

50. FORTOV, V. E., 2002. Explosive-Driven Generators ofPowerful Electric Current Pulses. Cambridge: CambridgeInternational Science Pub.

51. YEL’CHANINOV, A. A., KOROVIN, S. D., PEGEL’, I. V.,ROSTOV, V. V., RUKIN, S. N., SHPAK, V. G. andYALANDIN, M. I., 2003. The superradiative condition of arelativistic BWT with high peak power of microwave pulses.Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radioelektronika. vol. 46, is. 3,pp. 55–65. (in Russian).

52. MESYATS, G. A., 2004. Pulsed power and electronics.Moscow, Russia: Nauka Publ. (in Russian).

53. MESYATS, G. A. and YALANDIN, M. I., 2005. High-powerpicosecond electronics. Phys. Uspekhi. vol. 48, is. 3,pp. 211–229. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1070/PU2005v048n03ABEH002113

54. KUZELEV, M. V., RUKHADZE, A. A. and STRELKOV,P. S., 2018. Plasma relativistic microwave electronics.Moscow, Russia: Lenand Publ. (in Russian).

55. ALAM, N. and ALAM, M., 2020. The trend of differentparameters for designing integrated circuits from 1973 to2019 and linked to Moore’s law. Aust. J. Eng. Innov. Technol.vol. 2, is. 2, pp. 16–23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.020.016023

56. VELIKHOV, YE. P., 2003. Nanoelectronic instrumentsand engineering processes. Vestnik Rossijskoj akademii nauk.vol. 73, is. 5, pp. 395–399. (in Russian).


Keywords


functional damage; avionics; critical energy; Moore’s law; functional damage equation; radiolocation equation; detection and destruction range

Full Text:

PDF


Creative Commons License

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) .