THE FOUNDER OF THE DECAMETER RADIO ASTRONOMY IN UKRAINE ACADEMICIAN OF NAS OF UKRAINE SEMEN YAKOVYCH BRAUDE IS 110 YEARS OLD: HISTORY OF CREATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL EXPERIMENTAL BASE FOR THE LAST HALF CENTURY

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/rpra26.01.005

O. O. Konovalenko, V. V. Zakharenko, L. M. Lytvynenko, O. M. Ulyanov, M. A. Sidorchuk, S. V. Stepkin, V. A. Shepelev, P. Zarka, H. O. Rucker, A. Lecacheux, M. Panchenko, Yu. M. Bruck, P. L. Tokarsky, I. M. Bubnov, S. M. Yerin, V. L. Коliadin, V. M. Melnik, M. M. Kalinichenko, O. O. Stanislavsky, V. V. Dorovskyy, O. D. Khristenko, V. V. Shevchenko, O. S. Belov, A. O. Gridin, O. V. Antonov, V. P. Bovkun, O. M. Reznichenko, V. M. Bortsov, G. V. Kvasov, L. M. Ostapchenko, M. V. Shevchuk, V. A. Shevchenko, Ya. S. Yatskiv, I. B. Vavilova, I. S. Braude, Y. G. Shkuratov, V. B. Ryabov, G. I. Pidgorny, A. G. Tymoshevsky, O. O. Lytvynenko, V. V. Galanin, M. I. Ryabov, A. I. Brazhenko, R. V. Vashchishin, A. V. Frantsuzenko, V. V. Koshovyy, O. L. Ivantyshyn, A. B. Lozinsky, B. S. Kharchenko, I. Y. Vasylieva, I. P. Kravtsov, Y. V. Vasylkivsky, G. V. Litvinenko, D. V. Mukha, N. V. Vasylenko, A. I. Shevtsova, A. P. Miroshnichenko, N. V. Кuhai, Ya. M. Sobolev, N. O. Tsvyk

Abstract


Purpose: A historical review of the experimental baselopment of low-frequency radio astronomy in Ukraine, its foundation half a century ago by an outstanding scientist S.Ya. Braude to the current state.

Design/methodology/approach: The constant progress of electronic, computer and digital technologies, information and telecommunication technologies, theory and practice of antenna and receiving systems design, which introduction enriched
the hardware and methodological ideology of construction and usage of the UTR-2, URAN, and GURT radio telescopes, have been used.

Findings: The worldwide most effective national experimental radio astronomy means, the UTR-2, URAN, and GURT decameter-meter wave radiotelescopes, have been created and improved. The best combination of the systems main parameters: sensitivity; frequency band; spatial, frequency and temporal resolutions; noise immunity; uniformity of amplitude-frequency and space-frequency characteristics and multifunctionality has been provided.

Conclusions: For the half a century of radio astronomical scientific and technical at the Institute of Radio Astronomy of NAS of Ukraine, the high astrophysical informativeness of the low-frequency radio astronomy and the possibility of creating a highly efficient experimental base – giant radio telescopes of decameter-meter wavebands have been proved. Today, the Ukrainian radio telescopes are well known and recognized world-wide being indispensable and most in demand by the scientific community. The founder of the decameter radio astronomy in Ukraine, the eminent scientist Semen Yakovych Braude was not mistaken when he decided to start radio astronomical explorations. The memory of him will always remain in the minds and hearts of many generations.

Key words: low-frequency radio astronomy; radio telescope; phase shifter; antenna amplifier; digital signal recorder; effective area; sensitivity; resolution; noise immunity

Manuscript submitted 02.12.2020

Radio phys. radio astron. 2021, 26(1): 005-073

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