Optical and Radio Frequency Diagnostics of the Ionosphere over the Sura Facility: Review of Results

L. M. Kagan, M. J. Nicolls, M. C. Kelley, V. L. Frolov, V. V. Belikovich, N. V. Bakhmet’eva, G. P. Komrakov, D. I. Nedzvetski, V. P. Uryadov, Yu. M. Yampolski, V. G. Galushko, A. V. Koloskov, A. V. Zalizovski, S. B. Kascheev, N. F. Blagoveshenskaya, V. A. Kornienko, T. D. Borisova, A. V. Gurevich, G. G. Vertogradov, V. G. Vertogradov, T. S. Trondsen, E. Donovan


We give an overview of the design and results of the optical-backscatter-heating campaign which we conducted at the Sura facility near Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia on August 10-20, 2004. This campaign was the first to combine optical observations with simultaneous plasma diagnostics by the method of artificial periodic irregularities and with multi-position backscatter measurements and is an example of the clustering of instruments for the purpose of enhancing research results. Some of the results of the campaign have been published in a special issue of Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics and in Physical Review Letters and will only be summarized here. New results include offset of the optical emissions by 1-2° from magnetic zenith; broadening of the backscatter spectrum for heating at the fourth harmonic of the electron gyro frequency; observation of self-scattered signals at the second harmonic of the heater frequency; first observations of vector plasma drift/electric field measurements using field-aligned irregularities as tracers; verifying the refractive index mechanism for the Doppler shift of self-scattered signals and first observations of synchronized variations in self-scattered and backscattered signals. The electric field observations confirm that the ionosphere over a mid-latitude site such as SURA can be affected by high latitude processes.

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Optical and Radio Frequency Diagnostics of the Ionosphere over the Sura Facility: Review of Results / L.M. Kagan, M.J. Nicolls, M.C. Kelley, V.L. Frolov, V.V. Belikovich, N.V. Bakhmet’eva, G.P. Komrakov, D.I. Nedzvetski, V.P. Uryadov, Yu.M. Yampolski, V.G. Galushko, A.V. Kolosko3, A.V. Zalizovski, S.B. Kasheev, N.F. Blagoveshenskaya, V.A. Kornienko, T.D. Borisova, A.V. Gurevich, G.G. Vertogradov, V.G. Vertogradov, T.S. Trondsen and E. Donovan // Radio Physics and Radio Astronomy - Vol. 11, 2006, No.3, September, p.221.

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